Confined masonry construction is practiced in the rural areas of Iran (Hashemi, Alemi, and Ashtiany, 2003), usually in the form of single-storey dwellings with tie-columns and tie-beams covered by a timber roof.
This construction was subjected to two significant earthquakes in Iran: the 1990 Manjil earthquake (magnitude 7.6) and the 2003 Barn earthquake (magnitude 6.6). Damage to confined masonry buildings in the 1990 Manjil earthquake was caused by the absence of concrete tie-columns at some location. The performance of confined masonry buildings in the 2003 Bain earthquake was generally good, especially in the buildings designed according to the current code. Approximately 45,000 people died in the Barn earthquake, mainly due to the collapse of adobe dwellings with domed roofs (Nesheli, 2004).
Guidelines, Codes, and Standards
World Housing Encyclopedia Reports:
Report # 27 : Confined brick masonry building with concrete tie columns and beams
From Brzev, Svetlana. Earthquake-Resistant Confined Masonry Construction. 2nd ed. Kanpur: NICEE, 2007. Print.
Hashemi, B.H., Alemi, F., and Ashtiany, G. (2003). Confined Brick Masonry Building with Concrete Tie-Columns and Beams. Iran, Report 27, World Housing Encyclopedia,
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (www.world-housing.net)
Nesheli, K.N. (2004). Structural Damage to Buildings Due to
Bam Earthquake of December 26, 2003, Iran. ICUS/IN CEDE Newsletter, International Center for Urban Safety Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, V013, No.4.